English for Beginners:
The Letters or The Alphabet are the basic signs of a language to express specific sounds. The English language has 26 Alphabet.
There are two types of Alphabet.
The following letters are vowels.
A, E, I, O, U
The following letters are Consonants.
B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z
A meaningful combination of different letters is called a word
A meaningful combination of different words is called a sentence. It makes complete sense.
He is playing cricket
She sang a song.
Subject & Predicate:
A sentence has two parts.
- She will go to Lahore tomorrow.
in this sentence:
(She) is a subject and the remaining part (which will go to Lahore tomorrow) is a Predicate
- The dog was killed by him.
The red colored part of the above sentence is a predicate and the blue colored part is subject
A phrase is a combination of words that makes some sense but not complete sense. It is often without a verb.
for the sake of.
during the meeting.
around the world.
a man of wisdom. etc
A clause is a combination of words that makes complete sense and forms a part of a larger sentence. It is a simple sentence which is consisted of a subject and a predicate.
He saw a girl who was singing a song. (Two clauses )
I invited him to dinner and he arrived on time. (Two clauses)
The following are the kinds of Sentences.
Statements or declarative sentences:
Declarative sentences are simply statements that relay information. They are the most common type of sentences in the English language.
- He helps the poor.
- They will not agree with you.
An interrogative sentence asks a direct question and is punctuated at the end with a question mark. It is one of the four basic types of sentences.
- Who knocked at the door?
- Are you writing a letter?
- Will your mother help me?
When you make a request, offer advice, issue a command, or give an instruction, you use the imperative mood. Sentences that use the imperative mood are known as imperative sentences. To put it bluntly, an imperative sentence is a sentence that tells somebody to do something
- Ring the bell. (order)
- Please, help me. ( Request)
- Don’t make a noise. (Prohibition)
- Let us work. (Suggestion)
- do your duty honestly (Advice)
An exclamatory sentence, also known as an exclamation sentence or an exclamative clause, is a statement that expresses strong emotion. Typically, in English grammar, an exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark—also called an exclamation point.
- What a beautiful flower it is! (Wonder)
- Hurrah! We won the match. (Happiness)
- Alas! he failed the examination. (sorrow)
The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope regarding a given action. It is a superset of the cohortative mood and is closely related to the subjunctive mood but is distinct from the desiderative mood.
- Would that I were a king!
- May you live long!
Classification of Sentences:
- Simple sentences
- Compound sentence
- Complex sentences
- Compound-Complex sentences
A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb, and it may also have an object and modifiers. However, it contains only one independent clause. Here are a few examples:
- You will win the match.
- Uzma is a good teacher.
- She wrote.
A compound sentence joins two or more sentences that have related ideas of equal importance. The two sentences go together. Each sentence or independent clause must still have a subject and a verb.
- He went to college but I stayed at home. (Two clauses)
- Students reached on time and did their work well. (two clauses)
A complex sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. It works best when you need to provide more information to explain or modify your sentence’s main point.
- I guess that he will come soon. ( main clause and subordinate clause)
- He asked me who rang the bell. ( main clause and subordinate clause)
A compound-complex sentence is comprised of at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. Example: Though Mitchell prefers watching romantic films, he rented the latest spy thriller, and he enjoyed it very much
Aslam went to Lahore and visited various places which were of his interest. (Main clause, Main clause, Subordinate clause)
Note: it’s only for beginners if you know all about basics then you can go with this tutorial. Click here